In the manuscript collection of the Royal Library in Copenhagen, the ‘Copenhagen Chansonnier’ is present. The description reads: “This Chansonnier which has been characterized as the perhaps most interesting and valuable medieval manuscript of music in the Royal Library, occupies a place apart among the relatively few manuscripts which hand down the French-Burgundian repertory of chansons from the late 15th century. The manuscript contains texts and notes of 33 three-voiced songs. One song – “Iactens secours” – has been added in the 16th century. The manuscript ends with essays of modulation.”  A list of song titles and corresponding composers is given here ; a more in-depth treatment of the Chansonnier is presented by Woetmann Christoffersen .
In the Chansonnier a large number of malacological motifs occur, several of which are ‘malacomorph hybrids’ (i.e. a hybrid partly based on a snail or a snail-like figure). All snails are stylised and figured with two tentacles only.
Folio 0v has a song “Comment suige de vostre cueur” with the initial ‘C’ formed by a malacomorph hybrid, showing a nude mermaid holding a large heart and a two-headed snail sprouting from its neck. The shell is dextral with barely two whorls; the snails have their mouth open.
Folio 2r presents part of the song “Pour changier l’air ne pour fouir les lieux”. The upper initial ‘T[enor]’ shows a malacomorph hybrid, the head with two feathered tentacles, an eye-spot and a large tongue. The dextral shell is nearly three whorls, and is segmented or strongly ribbed.
The second initial ‘C[ontratenor]’ is formed by a curved snail, with an eye-spot. The dextral shell has two whorls and a weak indication of ribs or segments.
Folio 4r shows the second half of the song “Ma plus, ma mignonne, m’amye”. Here too the second initial (‘C’) is partly formed by a snail with two eye-spots; the segmented / ribbed shell has slightly over two whorls.
Folio 5r has the second part of the song “De tous biens plaine est ma maistresse”, attributed to the composer Hayne van Ghizeghem. The initial ‘T’ is a malacomorph hybrid with an ape on the dextral, segmented or ribbed shell.
The song “Se mieulx ne vient, d’amours peu me contente” is partly on folio 7r. The initial has a snail on top with a dextral, somewhat ribbed /segmented shell and an animal with an eye-spot.
Folio 7v shows the beginning of the song “Tart ara mon cueur sa plaisance”. The lower initial is a malacomorph hybrid; the body of the butterfly on top can also be seen as a snail. The shell is dextral, and as the previous ones, segmented or ribbed.
Folio 10v gives the start of the Residium from the song “Nul ne l’a tele, sa maistresse”. The initial ‘A’ has a snail in the middle, with a sinistral shell.
Folio 11r has the final part of this Residium. The initial ‘T’ has a snail on top of a hybrid, the animal with an eye-spot, the dextral shell has over two whorls.
On folio 13r, the final part of the Residium from “M’a vostre cueur mis en oubli” is shown. The upper initial (‘T’) is made up by a malacomorph hybrid, the sinistral shell as a cap.
Folio 14r, belonging to the final part of “Riant regard, acompli en doulceur”, is showing a side view from the left of a snail on top of a tree trunk. The shell is sinistral.
Folio 14v is the start of the song “Seulement une fois le jour” and the initial ‘S’ has a snail on top, the animal with a mouth, the dextral shell has two segmented/ribbed whorls.
Folio 15r is the last part of the same song. The initial ‘C’ is made up by two snails, the lower one with an eye-spot and mouth. Both shells are dextral.
On folio 16r the second part of “Ma plus qu’assez et tant bruiante” can be found. The initial ‘T’ shows a malacomorph hybrid emerging from a shell-like figure, while his head is also covered with a shell. The last shell is sinistral, the other dextral.
Folio 16v continues with the Residium of the same song. The initial has a snail standing upright, with an eye-spot; the segmented /ribbed shell is dextral.
Folio 18v is the starting page of the Residium from “Garison scray / Je suis mire”. In the initial a snail with a sinistral shell in left side view may be seen.
Folio 20r is the second part of “Je ne requier que vostre bien veuillance”, and starts with a initial ‘T’ made up by a hybrid emerging from a dextral, segmented/ribbed shell.
On folio 22r the song “Le joly tetin de ma dame” is continued from the preceding page. The initial ‘T’ is formed by a crippled man, holding grapes, with two snail on a branch on top of his hat. Both snails have an eye-spot and dextral shells.
Folio 23r has the last of the Residium for the song just mentioned. The initial ‘T’ is made up by a tower with three apes and four snails. Two of the snails have dextral shells, two sinistral. Some of the snails have an eye-spot and a mouth.
Folio 24r gives the second part of “Mon cueur et moi d’une alliance”, with the first initial (‘T’) consisting of a tree trunk, an ape and a snail seen in left side view, a humanised face and a sinistral shell.
Folio 24v is the song “Tant est mignone ma pensee” and it apt illustrated with an initial ‘T’ showing a malacomorph hybrid of a woman holding a yoke with two buckets; the snail from which she emerges has pointed tentacles and a humanised eye; its shell is dextral.
Folio 26r is part of the song “Ostrez la moy de mon oreille”, and has on this folio two malacological motifs. The upper initial (‘T’) has a snail in right side view with a humanised face; its shell is dextral. The second intial (‘C’) has a similar snail, with only an eye-spot.
Folio 26v gives the last part of the same song. Here the initial is made up by a malacomorph hybrid.
Folio 27r is used for the song “La plus [mignonne de mon cueur]”. Here too a malacomorph hybrid can be seen, with the upper part of a pig swallowing the head of a snail, of which the sinistral shell still is visible. The second initial shows either a snail without a shell or the body of a butterfly (cf. f. 7v).
Folio 29r is the last part of the Residium for “Soudainement mon cueur a pris”. The initial is made up by a malacomorph hybrid with a dextral shell.
On folio 30r the second part of the song “Quant vous me ferez plus de bien” is shown. The first initial (‘T’) is here made up by a snail in a dextral shell, with a humanised eye and pointed ears. The second, (‘C’), shows a large pig head with two tusks and a small snail, its shell dextral.
Folio 31r is the song “S’il advient [que mon deul me tue]”. The initial shows a man with a flute (?) with a winged, sinistral shell; on his back the man carries a basket with a two headed- (and -coloured) snail, with a sinistral shell too.
Folio 32r is the last part of “Mon tout, mon souvenir, m’amye”. On the head of the man in the upper initial, a left side view of a snail with a sinistral shell is seen.
Folio 34r is the second part of “La plus bruiant, celle qui toutes passe”. The T[enor] initial has a.o. a snail with a dextral shell. The C[ontratenor] initial shows a snail with a sinistral shell as the tongue of a grotesque.
Folio 36r, pertaining to the second part of “Sur mon ame, m’amye”, the upper initial shows a nude with an ape of its neck and a winged snail on a leash; the shell is sinistral.
Folio 38v is part of “Ja que lui ne s’i actende”; its initial ‘A’ has a small-sized snail with a sinistral shell.
Folio 39r is the last part of the same song and the upper initial is made up by a nude malacomorph hybrid with a snail-head. Both shells are dextral.
In total – on the 79 folio sides – 35 malacological motifs, of which 11 hybrids. The largest number I’ve seen so far…
The Chansonnier is dated at the 1470s and supposed to be decorated in Bourges [3, see Dating and location of the sources].
 DKC, Ms. Thott 291 8º, 47 ff. http://www.kb.dk/permalink/2006/manus/702/eng/
 http://www.undoulxregard.org/copenhague/copenhague.html 927.i.2014).
 Woetmann Christoffersen, P. (2013). The Copenhagen Chansonnier and the ‘Loire Valley’ chansonniers. An open access project. Available at http://chansonniers.pwch.dk/index.html (27.i.2014).